Cordova ships with a minimal set of APIs, and projects add what extra APIs they require through plugins.
You can search through all existing plugins (including third-party plugins) using the Plugin Registry.
The traditional set of core Cordova plugins are as follows:
Monitor the status of the device's battery.
Capture a photo using the device's camera.
Add additional capability to console.log().
Work with the devices contact database.
Gather device specific information.
Tap into the device's motion sensor.
Obtain the direction that the device is pointing.
Visual device notifications.
Make your application location aware.
Enable representation of objects specific to a locale.
Launch URLs in another in-app browser instance.
Record and play back audio files.
Capture media files using device's media capture applications.
Quickly check the network state, and cellular network information.
Show and hide the applications splash screen.
An API to vibrate the device.
An API for showing, hiding and configuring status bar background.
Non-English translations of these plugin docs can be found by looking at older versions of the Cordova documentation. Use the drop-down menu at the very top-right of this site to switch versions.